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Sevastopol - a city of
national importance, situated on the southwestern tip of the Crimean
peninsula. Founded by decree of
Russian Empress Catherine II in 1783. It is the largest
ice-free port, tourist and cultural center, the naval base of the Black
Sea Fleet of Russia and the Naval Forces of Ukraine. |
Prior to 2042 will be deployed in Sevastopol Black Sea Fleet of Russia. Russia leases approximately 4% of Sevastopol.
In ancient times the territory of modern Sevastopol Greek colony located Hersonissos, based come from Herculean Pont in the 5th century BC. In 988 Chersonese became part of Kievan Rus. Here's conversion to Christianity of Kiev, Prince Vladimir.
Hersonissos was destroyed by an army of Golden Horde.
14 June 1783 laid the first stone buildings - a house squadron commander, a chapel, blacksmith's shop, marina. The founder of the city was Rear Admiral of Scottish descent Thomas Fomich McKenzie.
February 21, 1784 Catherine II issues a decree on the establishment of the fortress of Sevastopol.
Sevastopol played a key role during the Crimean War of 1853-1856. September 14, 1854 62000th army of Britain, France and Turkey landed at Evpatoria and went to Sevastopol. In defense of the city rose 25 thousand sailors and 7000th garrison.
Due to a complete superiority enemy fleet, it was decided to flood the Russian ships at the entrance to Sevastopol bay. The siege lasted 349 days, the Allies did not manage to take the fortress.
During the Second World War Sevastopol been 250 days under siege by superior enemy forces. May 9, 1944, a year before the Victory town was liberated from German troops.
Nowadays, Sevastopol - a city under central authority, not part of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
According to the census in 2001 the city population was 377,000 people, most of them Russian - 74%
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